Valentine's Day is a time to celebrate romance and love and kissy-face fealty. But the origins of this festival of candy and cupids are actually dark, bloody — and a bit muddled.
Though no one has pinpointed the exact origin of the holiday, one good place to start is ancient Rome, where men hit on women by, well, hitting them.
Those Wild and Crazy Romans 野蛮疯狂的罗马人
From Feb. 13 to 15, the Romans celebrated the feast of Lupercalia. The men sacrificed a goat and a dog, then whipped women with the hides of the animals they had just slain.
The Roman romantics "were drunk. They were naked," says Noel Lenski, a historian at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Young women would actually line up for the men to hit them, Lenski says. They believed this would make them fertile.
The brutal fete included a matchmaking lottery, in which young men drew the names of women from a jar. The couple would then be, um, coupled up for the duration of the festival – or longer, if the match was right.
The ancient Romans may also be responsible for the name of our modern day of love. Emperor Claudius II executed two men — both named Valentine — on Feb. 14 of different years in the 3rd century A.D. Their martyrdom was honored by the Catholic Church with the celebration of St. Valentine's Day.
Later, Pope Gelasius I muddled things in the 5th century by combining St. Valentine's Day with Lupercalia to expel the pagan rituals. But the festival was more of a theatrical interpretation of what it had once been. Lenski adds, "It was a little more of a drunken revel, but the Christians put clothes back on it. That didn't stop it from being a day of fertility and love."
Around the same time, the Normans celebrated Galatin's Day. Galatin meant "lover of women." That was likely confused with St. Valentine's Day at some point, in part because they sound alike.
Shakespeare In Love 爱情里的莎士比亚
As the years went on, the holiday grew sweeter. Chaucer and Shakespeare romanticized it in their work, and it gained popularity throughout Britain and the rest of Europe. Handmade paper cards became the tokens-du-jour in the Middle Ages.
Eventually, the tradition made its way to the New World. The industrial revolution ushered in factory-made cards in the 19th century. And in 1913, Hallmark Cards of Kansas City, Mo., began mass producing valentines. February has not been the same since.
Today, the holiday is big business: According to market research firm IBIS World, Valentine's Day sales reached $17.6 billion last year; this year's sales are expected to total $18.6 billion.
But that commercialization has spoiled the day for many. Helen Fisher, a sociologist at Rutgers University, says we have only ourselves to blame.
"This isn't a command performance," she says. "If people didn't want to buy Hallmark cards, they would not be bought, and Hallmark would go out of business."
And so the celebration of Valentine's Day goes on, in varied ways. Many will break the bank buying jewelry and flowers for their beloveds. Others will celebrate in a SAD (that's Single Awareness Day) way, dining alone and binging on self-gifted chocolates. A few may even be spending this day the same way the early Romans did. But let's not go there.
The difference between Q and JIEQI is that the former has a lot of cultural connotations such as paying tribute to the dead while the latter is mere a system of recording the changes of seasons to enable people to arrange their yearly things
Q is a traditional festival in Ch as well as an unmissable day to pay tribute to ancestors by sweeping their tombs practiced by both Han and some minority groups.
按照旧的习俗，扫墓时，人们要携带酒食果品、纸钱等物品到墓地，将食物供祭在亲人墓前 altar tables ，再将纸钱焚化，为坟墓培上新土，折几枝嫩绿的新枝插在坟上，然后叩头行礼祭拜，最后吃掉酒食回家。唐代诗人杜牧的诗《清明》：“清明时节雨纷纷，路上行人欲断魂。借问酒家何处有？牧童遥指杏花村。”写出了清明节的特殊气氛。
Kowtowing and burning lucky money as well as placing food on altar tables and filling up some fresh soil on their graves are all what people are supposed to do during the days.There won't be any waste as people eat them after all the activities. A poem by DM from D D goes like travelers are hurrying home inspite of the seasonal rain. Guided by a sheeperd boy, a tavern is in sight.
Q is still popular because people like before still treasure the memory of being togething even though they cann't see their dead relatives. A varity of things are happening as to be cautious to fire, sweeping and cleaning the tombstone, wandering, playing swings, JIUQIU, MAQIU, and planting trees. Not allowing fires during these few days may cause some health issues, as the saying goes, so people are trying their best to keep fit. Therefore as you can imagine that both sorrowful and happy tear are expected at the same.
There are about 25 minority groups practicing it now with some differnce in details.
From the ancient time, These few days have always been for planting trees for very obviouse reasons and it has Planting trees days as its nickname. In 1979, the people's congress has decided that March22nd is the day when the country up and down is doing it.
Buring paper money and cleaning the graveyard.
Accoring to the on-street-interview in XX, there are 51 out of 60 citizens knew about what it is about by answering going to graves. However, only 3 people knew about planting willow trees, and only 2 heard about playing swings or flying kites, and none seemed to know about the eating eggs.
When asked why the government has not seemed to be very keen to promote it, Tian gave two reasons: Q is not like other holidays and it is the only one to centre on the dead which makes it very difficult to promote. While Dragon Boat and Latern Festival are putting smiles on face, Q is not.
Thanksgiving is usually celebrated by getting together with lots of family, including grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins. The meal is held in one family's home, and it is common for guests to bring drinks, snacks and desserts. Because Thanksgiving is close to Christmas, families can spend one holiday with the mother's family and the other holiday with the father's family. University students can invite boyfriends, girlfriends or friends whose families live too far away to come home with them for the holiday.
The first image that comes to mind when people think about Thanksgiving is a big, fat turkey. Turkeys are indeed enormous; the average Thanksgiving turkey is 15 pounds, or 6.8 kilograms. (This means that people have to eat turkey sandwiches for weeks after Thanksgiving!) The meal, often held in the late afternoon, also includes mashed potatoes with gravy, bread rolls, stuffing (which can be cooked inside the turkey), cranberry sauce, sweet corn, and other seasonal vegetables like sweet potato and green beans. For dessert, pumpkin pie is most popular, although many families enjoy other kinds of pie as well, such as apple pie, pecan pie or blueberry pie.
After the meal, families relax and spend time together, sometimes watching American football games or Thanksgiving Day parades on television. Thanksgiving is also a time to volunteer or donate your time and money to charities. As people reflect on the blessings in their lives, they are inspired to help those who may be going through difficult times. Many churches and community organizations hold free dinners where people volunteer to buy, cook and serve the food. People also organize "food drives" where canned and packaged food is donated, collected and given to those in need. Also, companies and organizations can hold charity events, where employees, friends and families can pay to attend a dinner or dance and all of the money is donated to a charity.
Teachers'Day of China 中国的教师节
In China, teachers are held in high esteem. September 10th is the Teachers'Day of China. This day is in honor of all those involved in the teaching profession。
September 28th is the birthday of the world-famous teacher Confucius-KongZi. Kongzi is a great philosopher and he is also a great teacher. He had thousands of disciples (students)， including Aristotle. In the ancient times, Kongzi’s birthday was regarded as a Teachers'Day。
Now, September 10th is the Teachers'Day of China. In the year f 1984, Wang Zishen, former president of Beijing Normal University, suggested to establish a festival day for the Chinese teachers. On Jan. 21st,1985,September 10th was fixed as the Teachers'Day of China。
Teachers'Day in America(美国的教师节)
Tuesday of the first full week of May, will be National Teachers' Day every year, a time for honoring teachers and recognizing the lasting contributions they make to our lives. The actual date varies from year to year. That whole week is designated Teacher Appreciation Week by the National PTA. It's a time to strengthen support and respect for teachers and the teaching profession. The history of Teacher Day goes back to 1944.
The origins of National Teacher Day are a bit murky, but it's known that an Arkansas teacher, Mrs. Mattye Whyte Woodridge, began corresponding with political and education leaders as early as 1944 about the need for a national day honoring teachers. One of the leaders she wrote to was Eleanor Roosevelt, who persuaded the 81st Congress to proclaim a National Teacher Day in 1953.
教师节的起源说起来有点凄惨，阿肯色州教师Mrs. Mattye Whyte Woodridge从1944年起就开始游说当时国家的行政官员和教育官员建立一个教师节来向教师致敬和表达谢意，直到1953年，收到过她的信的一位名叫Eleanor Roosevelt的官员才说服第81届议会的议员们同意建立一个全国性的教师节。
In the late 1970s, the National Education Association(NEA)， its Indiana and Kansas state affiliates, and its local affiliate in Dodge City, Kansas, all lobbied Congress on behalf of creation of a national day celebrating teachers. Congress declared March 7,1980 as National Teacher Day for that year only。
NEA and its affiliates continued to observe Teacher Day on the first Tuesday in March until 1985, when NEA and the National PTA established Teacher Appreciation Week as the first full week of May. The NEA Representative Assembly then voted to make the Tuesday of that week National Teacher Day。
Teachers'Day in Latvia(拉托维亚的教师节)
Latvia celebrate Teachers'Day on the first Sunday of October。
The celebrations usually take place on Friday. All pupils show performances to teachers in the hall. Pupils present a lot of flowers to teachers. The most interesting thing is that teachers acting as pupils have a lesson with senior pupils acting as teachers. They teach, ask questions and play games as a usual lesson. Teachers usually behave badly, they are late, chew gum, talk to deskmates and have to be reprimanded and sent to the head teacher who is also a senior pupil。
Teachers'Day in Thailand(泰国的教师节)
In Thailand, Teacher's Day on January 16th is a school holiday. Students and the public are asked to remember the important role teachers play as our benefactors and persons who give light to our life. During the morning a special ceremony is held for the teachers. The first Teacher's day was held back in 1957. Read the following report to find out what the students did with themselves with this day off。
Wichaya (a twelve year old girl)： On January 16th, I got up at 9 o'clock in the morning. I drank some milk and ate a piece of cake. It was so delicious. I watched The Lion King and The Sound of Music. The Sound of Music is a very good movie. I have watched it five or six times already. On this day I did all of my homework., I did Art, Agriculture and Life Experience. I had to do a report for Agriculture. I sat at my desk for about two to three hours. I was so tired. I played Word Up with my cousins and my father. My father won the game. Then I played Scrabble. I cleaned up my room. I put all of my pictures in my drawers. I watched television until 6 o'clock. Then I went downstairs to eat some dinner with my parents, aunt and my grandmother. I went to sleep very early. Wichaya(12岁女孩)
在1月16日这天，我早晨9点开始起床。我的早餐是牛奶和蛋糕，它们很好吃。饭后我看"狮子王"和"The Sound of Music"，"The Sound of Music"是一部非常好的电影，我已经看过五六次了。今天我还做了我所有的功课，艺术、农学和生活体验，我必须完成一个农学专题。我在我的课桌前坐了大约2到3个小时，感觉到非常累。然后我与我的堂兄弟姐妹、我的爸爸一起玩"Word Up"游戏，结果是爸爸赢了。后来是我玩拼图游戏。玩耍后我又打扫了我的房间，我把我所有的图片都放到了抽屉里。然后一直到晚上6点我一直都在看电视。再后来就是下楼和家人一块吃晚餐。今天我睡的很早。
Teachers' Day in Singapore(新加坡的教师节)
On 31st August, was a day like any other schooldays, except that the teachers, instead of being bogged down by assignments were besieged by gifts, flowers and cards from the ever-grateful students。
The hall was beautifully decorated with colourful balloons and streamers. The Class Chairman and Vice-Chairman were given the honour to invite the teachers personally to the hall. With each teacher's arrival, the students roared and cheered for them。
The concert comprised of dances and song performances that were all put up by our very own talented students! The audience even crooned to the rhythm of the songs. Our students also 'boogied down' with slick dance steps while the Balinese dancers impressed all with their delightful costumes and grace。
The culmination was of course the last item that was put up by some teachers. They sang a song entitled, "I love to teach the world to sing". It was very heart warming and the performance received the loudest applauds from the audience。
1. Highland Games, Scotland苏格兰高地运动
A kilted contestant twirls and hurls a heavy burden during a hammer throw event in Glenfinnan. Traditional highland games feature a heady mix of dance, drink, and food to complement feats of athletic prowess.在格伦菲南举行的这场掷铁锤比赛中，穿着苏格兰百褶裙的参赛选手旋转锤柄然后用力掷出重物。因为综合了舞蹈、饮酒和让选手充分勇猛神技的美食，这类传统的高地运动散发出独特的魅力。
2. Gerewol Festival, Niger尼日尔格莱沃尔节
West Africa’s Wodaabe nomads prize beauty and celebrate the tribe’s ideal at the annual Gerewol festival. Young men tempt their female judges with heavy makeup, ceremonial garb, and a traditional dance called the yaake. The lucky winner enjoys his choice of wives and lovers.在一年一度的格莱沃尔节上，西非的沃达贝族（Wodaabe）人评选出美丽的族人并且颂扬部落的宏愿。青年男子们隆重装扮，身着礼袍，跳起称为yaake的传统舞蹈，以此来吸引女性评审们的注意。幸运的优胜者可以有权选择不止一位妻子和爱人。
3. Lantern Festival, Taiwan台湾元宵节
Glowing, floating lanterns carry aloft Taiwanese hopes and prayers for good fortune in the coming year. In Taiwan and in Mainland China the Lantern Festival is celebrated on the night of the new year’s first full moon. The origins of the ancient custom are in doubt but its future seems secure—the festival has gained steam in recent years with the addition of fireworks and laser light shows.点亮的灯笼漂浮水上，带走了台湾人对来年的美好期望和祈愿。台湾和中国大陆的人们在农历新年的第一个月圆之夜庆祝元宵节。这种古老习俗目前起源未明，但它无疑会保留下来。近年来，元宵活动中还加入了烟火燃放和激光表演，让节日更添生机。
4. Folklore Festival, Kyrgyzstan 吉尔吉斯斯坦民俗节
Horses and horsemanship have long been prized in the nomadic Kyrgyz culture and contemporary men are eager to show they can still perform just about any feat, including wrestling matches known as oodarysh, while mounted.
Festivals celebrating such skills, and featuring plenty of food and drink, are held at high altitude summer pasture grounds known as jailoo. This event at Sarala-Saz draws tourists to a beautiful but remote region.
5. Beltane Fire Festival, Scotland苏格兰五月火把节
Jubilant “Celts" bear lighted torches—and little in the way of clothing—during the Beltane Fire Festival on Edinburgh’s Calton Hill. The popular annual celebration is a modern manifestation of an ancient Celtic festival. Beltane once marked the arrival of the summer growing season as well as the rebirth of agricultural—and human—fertility.在爱丁堡卡尔顿山（Calton Hill）举行的五月火把节上，全身几乎一丝不挂的“凯尔特人”举着熊熊燃烧的火把欢呼。对这个古老的凯尔特节日，这样广受欢迎的庆祝活动是对它的一种现代展现。五月曾经是夏季这个生长季节到来的标志，同时它也表明农业和人类繁衍重焕生机。
6. Burning Man, Nevada美国内华达州“火烧人”节
Even at the Burning Man festival a “land yacht” under steam is able to turn heads. What exactly is Burning Man? Devotees of the annual event say you have to attend to understand the temporary community of art and self-expression that appears—and subsequently disappears—each year in the middle of Nevada's Black Rock Desert.
7. Loy Krathong, Thailand 泰国水灯节
Thailand’s Loy Krathong festival is particularly lovely at the locale where some say it all started—Sukhothai Historical Park in Sukhothai, home to the ruins of the nation’s ancient capital. By the light of each year’s last full moon, Thais launch banana-leaf krathong floats—and their hopes for good fortune—in waters all over Thailand.
8. Vegetarian Festival, Thailand 泰国素食节
Taking aim on meat lovers, devotees of the Chinese shrine Bang Neow march in Phuket for Thailand’s Vegetarian Festival. Chinese immigrants started the Taoist event in 1825, when they credited the gods and their vegetarian diet for delivering them from an epidemic. Now the nine-day event is widely known for “possessed” persons who, in their fervor, subject themselves to ever more elaborate piercings.
9. Carnival, Brazil 巴西狂欢节
Gracyanne Barbosa, queen of Mangueira samba school’s drum section, saunters her way through Rio de Janeiro’s 2009 Carnival parade. The samba sound was born in Rio and remains the beating heart of the city’s rather racy Carnival parade. Since the 1920s the parade has been fuelled by the city’s samba schools, which gather musicians, dancers, and designers to prepare year-round for one of the world’s great street celebrations.
10. Wayne Chicken Show, Nebraska 美国内布拉斯加州韦恩鸡节
Shirtless but apparently modest, the “Chickendale Dancers” prepare to strut their stuff at the Wayne Chicken Show. Every summer this small Nebraska town fetes the humble chicken with a wide menu of events, including the world’s largest chicken dance, an auction of cement chickens decorated by local artists, and, perhaps to the chagrin of the festival’s patron poultry, a chicken wing-eating contest.
Flip the usual script and get your loved ones involved in making the holidays brighter for everyone.翻阅电话本给你所爱的人打电话吧，让他们来使你这个节日更加快活。
You Will Need.Conscientiousness,Letters,Family activities,Food.你需要有：一丝不苟的精神、信件、家庭成员的参与和食物。
Step 1: Convert parties to giving events
Convert the usual office, family, or neighborhood party to a giving event, volunteering to do for others or to donate money to a cause.第一步：把平时由同事、家庭或邻居参与的聚会换成举办公益活动。可以是自愿为他人做一些事或为一次事故募捐钱财。
Tip:Offer to shelter someone, or a family, if you can this season.小贴士：如果你能力允许，在这个季节为一个人，或一个家庭提供援助。
Step 2: Write letters 第二步：写信
Write Christmas letters to others, which will honor and delight them, and which you will enjoy as well.给他人写圣诞贺卡吧。既得到了他人的赞扬又愉悦了自己。
Step 3: Host a goofy gift exchange第三步：进行傻傻的礼物交换
Host a White Elephant Exchange, in which friends and family bring unwanted gifts and all take turns pulling a number out of a hat to pick the next bizarre present. Don’t laugh too hard: that gift might be your surprise next year.举办一场无用的礼物交换活动。突施妙计让你的朋友或家人把他们不中意的礼物换成另一件不寻常的。千万不要笑：说不定下年这个礼物是一个惊喜呢。
Step 4: Check out light displays第四步：享受阳光的洗礼
Ride with the family to city, neighborhood, or public park Christmas light displays and enjoy the sights.和你的家人骑车到市里、周边或开放式公园，享受圣诞节的阳光的同时也可以欣赏两侧的风景。
Step 5: Attend church and community events第五步：参加教堂或社区举办的活动
Attend church and community plays, nativities, musicals, recitals, choir performances, or special meals that celebrate the season of giving.看一场教堂或社区表演的话剧，或是庆祝耶稣基督的诞生、音乐剧、朗诵会、唱诗班的演唱、一顿特别的佳肴等等，庆祝这个节日给予我们的一切。
Tip:Make a family ritual of taking time to count your blessings, telling stories of the seasons past, and remembering loved ones.小贴士：花一点时间，在家里举行宗教仪式，包括向上天祈祷，讲述过去的季节发生的事和铭记所爱之人。
Step 6: Eat and be merry第六步：快乐的吃
Eat and be merry during the holidays with those you love. Coordinate a potluck with relatives or neighbors to get together and share good cheer. That’s what it’s all about.在节日期间和你所爱的人幸福的进餐。和亲戚或邻居达成一致，彼此欢聚分享欢乐，来一次百乐餐。这就是你需要做的全部工作了。
The holiday season tends to be stressful for everyone, but the stress can be magnified when you’re in chronic pain. Since stress tends to increase pain, it’s important to plan ahead and do whatever you can to reduce your stress during the holidays. Here are some tips from Karen Lee Richards that might help.
Avoid the stress and exhaustion of holiday shopping by ordering your gifts online, from catalogs or through TV shopping channels. You don’t even have to get dressed to shop! An added benefit is that out-of-town gifts can be sent directly to the recipients, saving you the hassle of finding a box, packaging the gifts and waiting in line at the post office.借由网络、邮寄或电视购物来避免节日购物的压力以及随之而来的疲劳。你甚至用不着打扮的漂漂亮亮去购物！另一个好处是，给外地的礼品可以直接送到接收人手里，省去你找盒子、包装及在邮局排队的麻烦。
If you have to shop at malls and shopping centers during the holidays, try to do your shopping on weekdays if possible. You’ll find better parking spaces and shorter checkout lines.如果不得不在节日里到商场或购物中心买东西，那么尽可能在工作日完成你的购物。你会找到更多的停车位以及更短的付款队伍。
Use gift bags instead of traditional wrapping. (Dollar stores, catalogs and TV shopping channels often offer low-cost assortments of gift bags.)用礼品袋替换传统包装。（一元店、邮购及电视购物经常提供廉价的礼品袋套装。）
Each year, between busy schedules and increased postage costs, fewer and fewer people send holiday cards. If you still feel you must send some cards, be selective. Only send them to close friends and family you seldom see.
It‘s ok to say no –– really it is. You know your limits better than anyone else. People will almost always push you to do more than you’re comfortable with if you let them, but they’ll usually respect your decision if you tell them you can’t. Decide what is important to you and your family and how much you’re able to handle, then say no to everything else.
When everyone is coming to your house for dinner, ask each one to bring one or two dishes, leaving yourself only one or two simple items to prepare.
If you are going out of town to visit relatives for the holidays, consider staying at a hotel for at least part of the time. Having a separate haven will reduce your stress by giving you a sense of control over your own space and activities for at least a portion of each day.
If the demands of your extended family are more than you can handle each year, consider making an annual holiday vacation a new family tradition. (Try a western dude ranch, a chalet in the mountains, or a warm tropical beach.) This can be a special bonding time for you and your immediate family. You will not feel compelled to cook, and you will probably reduce the size of your gift list because everything will have to fit in a car or on a plane.
Take time to think about all the people and things in your life that you are thankful for. Whenever possible, tell people why you’re grateful to have them in your life. Thank the store clerk for helping you and the stranger for holding the elevator for you. Recent studies showed that people who make a conscious effort to be thankful were not only more joyful and optimistic, but they also had fewer illnesses.
Set aside a little quiet time for yourself each day to relax and de-stress. Put on some headphones and listen to soothing music or soak in a warm bubble bath.
A lot of us seem to lose sight of what the holidays really mean to us.我们中很多人似乎忘记了节日的真正含义。
To me the holidays are about spending time with family, reflecting on what the past year has brought and what the new year has in store.对我而言，节日就是和家人一起度过，追忆逝去的时光以及期盼即将到来的日子。
If you haven’t sent out your Christmas cards, made the Christmas pudding or even decorated your house yet (I haven’t), relax, that’s not what this is about.如果你还没来得及寄圣诞贺卡、做圣诞布丁甚至是装扮你的房屋，冷静下来，这并不是节日的所有。
If you are feeling rather ill prepared for this holiday season there are still things you can do to pull it together and have a happy one.如果你感觉自己对这个节日准备得不够好，那么你还可以通过一些事情来补救，享受一个欢乐假日。
1. Christmas party. Host an open house instead. Send an email or pick up the phone and call those people you wish to see over the holidays. Invite them to your house one day either this weekend or next and have a bit of a visit. Keep it informal and low key. Set aside a few hours in the afternoon (say 1pm-5pm) and make sure people know they can just come and go according to what time works best for them. Keep it simple. No one will care that you don’t have a 10 cheese platter with 12 types of crackers. Set out some baked goods, appetizers, tea, coffee, juice, water and you’re good to go.
2. Baking. If you normally bake enough to fill your freezer twice over but have yet to fire up the oven, don’t panic. No one will think any less of you for buying your baked goods this year. As far as I know no one is handing out prizes for being the perfect little baker. If you still want to make a few goodies, try cheating when you can. Buy pre-made tart shells, cake mixes or frozen pastries. If you are still hung up on making things from scratch how about a compromise? Make things from scratch that are quick and easy and buy the rest. A favorite in my family is peanut butter marshmallow cake (minus the walnuts from this recipe). It’s super easy and takes no time at all. I know it’s not real baking but it’s close.
3. Christmas cards. By now it may be a little late to mail Christmas cards, unless you really don’t mind people receiving them after Christmas. A better idea is to hand deliver cards to those you’ll see at parties, dinners or other get togethers. If you are hosting an open house in the next weekend or two why not hand them out as your guests leave? If you’re anything like me you’ll agonize over what to write in the cards. You want to write the perfect holiday message. Well, when was the last time you received a card and thought, “hmmm well they could have put in a bit more effort”? Likely never. So don’t get hung up on what to say keep it short, to the point and mean it. The following (and slight variations of it) always works for me:
From our family to yours we wish you a very happy holiday and all the best in the new year.
4. Decorations. If you have yet to decorate there is still time for that as well. If you don’t have the time to do everything you usually do each year, rest assured that less is usually more when it comes to decorating for the holidays. Just because you have the decorations doesn’t mean they need to be out. Pick and choose which decorations you love and put them in a place to best show them off. If you’re still looking for a craft to do in time for the holidays, consider doing what we did. Find some glass or plastic balls (enough for everyone in your family). Using a metallic marker write your name across the front and the year on the back. Draw a simple tree or snowflake and you’re done. We’re using these as name tags on our dinner table and afterwards everyone can take theirs home to hang on their tree. Easy!
5. Christmas dinner. Okay this is a biggie for some people. If you cringe at the thought of spending the entire day of Christmas in the kitchen cooking and cleaning I have a few suggestions for you to consider.
Make ahead. If I’m hosting Christmas dinner I try and get as much of the work done ahead of time. This includes making the mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce, preparing the vegetables (wash and cut), and also setting the table and cleaning the house. Doing as much as you can before the actual day, will make for a much more enjoyable 25th.
Make it a potluck. If you are running short on time or have a committed yourself to a lot of activities ask others to bring something for the dinner. Coleslaw, sweet potatoes, cranberry sauce, dinner rolls, salad, pies and whipped cream for dessert. People will be honored to help out and it will lighten your load considerably.
6. Cleaning. With all the coming and going, dinners and parties I hear you thinking “I’ll never have time to clean the house before everyone gets here”. Again, don’t panic. Focus on one room at a time and do a thorough clean a few days before. Gather up items that don’t belong and return them to where they do. Fill a tub with warm soapy water and use a soft cloth to wipe down surfaces and nick-nacks to remove any of the dust. If you are having people over on short notice focus on areas that they will most likely be looking at. Kitchen, bathroom, living room, dining room, and family room are good places to start. Don’t become obsessed with it though.
You may have heard of the running of the bulls in Pamplona, Spain, or the gathering of sun worshipers to celebrate the summer solstice at Britain's Stonehenge, but Europe has plenty of other less famous but equally unusual festivals. Some date back many centuries, but others have more recent origins. Although certain festivals reflect serious local traditions and seem odd to Americans, others are just plain nuts to everyone. We've found a few to tickle your fancy and introduce you to some lesser-known cultural eccentricities of our European friends.你可能听说过西班牙潘普洛纳城的奔牛节，或是太阳崇拜者为庆夏至而聚集前往英国的巨石阵，但在欧洲，还有很多其他节日， 虽不是那么有名， 但却同样众不同。=有些节日要追溯到好几个世纪前，但也有一些源于近代。尽管某些鲜为人知的节日是与当地传统相关的，美洲人会觉得古怪， 但其他那些实在是太平淡无奇了。这里我们搜罗了一些节日，在激发你想象力的同时，也让你了解一下我们欧洲朋友们那些少为人知的奇特文化吧。
La Fête du Cochon/La Pourcailhade, Trie-sur-Baïse, France: To enter the Pig-Squealing Championship at the annual Festival of the Pig, you'd best rehearse your pig shrieks now; locals have been practicing for years. Townsfolk here celebrate the pig in many forms: as noisy squealers, as competitors in pig races, as men in pig costumes and, of course, as pork, ham and sausage.
Carnaval de Granville, Granville, France: Carnaval in this Normandy town began in the 1500s as a way to bid adieu to fishermen launching their boats. Its 138th celebration has morphed into a Mardi Gras with cocktails, balls, parades, extravagant costumes, intricate floats and so much flying paper in the Battle of Confetti that it can be hard to see the floats.
Sandsation, Berlin: Maybe the intricate artworks created from 2,200 tons of sand for the Sand Sculpture Festival wouldn't seem so quirky if they weren't in landlocked Berlin, about 100 miles from the beach.
Romería Vikinga-Viking Festival, Catoira, Spain: Locals dressed as Viking warriors re-create a 1,000-year-old battle by invading this Galician village in far northwestern Spain. During the simulated battle to take Torres del Oeste, an 11th century castle, Vikings and defenders alike get soaked in wine.
西班牙-维京海盗节：当地人打扮成维京海盗，入侵西班牙远西北部加利西亚自治区的村镇，重现1000年前的战斗场景。在这场争夺十一世纪Torres del este城堡的模拟战斗中，海盗和守卫者们都开怀畅饮，酩酊大醉。
1. Katir tha Maem
This phrase is a literal translation of ‘Festival of Lights’ or ‘Chanukkah’ into Wardwesân, the language of the fictional civilization of the Wards. Like the Ancient Hebrews, the Wards formed a monotheistic culture, and their own revolts, legends, and religious writings are collected in Frédéric Werst’s recent anthology titled Ward.
Of course, the Wards knew nothing of the Maccabean Revolt or rededication of the Second Temple, and they had no term for the Jewish holiday, but the vocabulary and grammar of Wardwesân allows us to construct one. Even Channukah comes from a language that is partially constructed: The form Chanukkah (as opposed to Hanukkah) is preferred in Modern Hebrew, a language that has been revitalized to fortify Jewish and Israeli identity, and reinforced with new vocabulary to make it suitable for modern life.
The basic item el from J. R. R. Tolkien’s Elvish languages means ‘star’ and it underlies compound forms like Elbereth ‘star queen,’ the name of one of the principal divinities of Tolkien’s mythology, and Elerrina ‘star-crowned,’ the name of the mountain—tallest in the Blessed Realm—where she lives. It is also the base of ele ‘behold,’ which is what Elves exclaimed when they first saw stars. Behold! figures in other stories with important stars, as when the angel of the Lord said unto the shepherds, “Fear not! For, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.” Looking to the heavens for truth and inspiration crosses cultures—both real and fictional—and transcends their differences.
前缀el来源于矮人语‘星星’。矮人语“星星”可以组成词组“星星女皇”，指矮人族神话中最重要的神，也可以组成词组“星星凤凰”，指在Blessed领地的女巨人。矮人语“星星”可以组成词组“星星注视”，用来表达第一次看到星星的欢喜之情。看啊(星星注视)! 想想所有关于星星的故事，就像天使队牧羊人说：”不要害怕，看着星星，塔会给你不尽的欢乐，就像给所有人的一样。” 俯仰所有文化（现实或虚幻）的真理和灵感，就能看透，进而超越他们的不同点。
The history of yet another supposedly ancient people, the Klingons, is full of war and treachery, even more so than that of the Wards or Israelites. Klingons are culturally harsh and unforgiving, and so is their language. Marc Okrand, who has invented almost all of Klingon, admits to emphasizing hard and guttural sounds (k as in back, ch as in Bach, etc.) in the Klingon repertoire, so that language and culture would fit hand in glove. Still, Klingons welcome peace, if it doesn’t come at the expense of honor, and they have a word—roj—which means both ‘peace’ and ‘make peace.’ This Klingon peace, the peace that isn’t war, isn’t quite the same as the peace in “Let There Be Peace on Earth,” but it’s headed in the right direction. If Klingons value any kind of peace, then we can hope in the face of cynicism.
我们来看看另一支传说中古老的民族，克林贡。克林贡的历史充满了动荡不平，有甚于Ward与以色列。克林贡人的文化严厉而不轻恕，和他们的语言一样。Marc Okrand创造了大部分克林贡语，并为克林贡语加入了大量生硬的喉音，比如说k,ch等。如此一来，语言和文化便相容了。但是，克林贡人希望和平，如果在保持尊严的条件下。他们有这样一个单词'roy'，意思是‘和平’与‘创造和平’。这种克林贡人的和平，当然不指战争，却也非我们通常意义的和平。但至少这种和平是克林贡的希望之光。 If Klingons value any kind of peace, then we can hope in the face of cynicism. (对不起，翻不来)
Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof, who invented Esperanto, the most successful of international auxiliary languages, came from 19th-century Poland, when it was a hotbed of ethnic hostility. Zamenhof attributed the hostility to “the diversity of languages,” which seemed to him “the only, or at least the primary force which divides the human family into enemy parts.” He longed for nothing more than that people would live in peace, and he believed they needed a common language to do so—so he invented one, which he called “Lingvo Internacia.” He presented it to the public in 1887 under the pseudonym Doktor Esperanto—in Esperanto, esperanto means ‘one who hopes,’ and it was soon adopted as the name of the language. Zamenhof’s idealism (which many have mocked) partakes of the holiday spirit—the spirit of espero, meaning ‘hope.’
Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof创造了世界语 Esperanto，是最为成功的人造语之一。Ludwig生活于19世纪的波兰。此时的波兰正是民族仇恨的大火炉。Ludwig认为这种民族仇恨，源于语言的不同。甚而，Ludwig认为语言的不同是为所有民族仇恨的主要原因。但使天下充满和平，唯有创造世界语。他创造的世界语原名为“Lingvo Internacia”，于1887年问世。由于他当时使用 Doktor Esperanto为笔名。故而此世界语又叫Esperanto。在Esperanto语中，Esperanto的意思是“怀抱希望的人”，也是一种节日用语。Ludwig的理想颇有节日精神——那就是希望。
5. Hau ‘oli makaluki hau!
Hawaiian, like Modern Hebrew, is a revitalized language, partly reconstructed to work in the modern world while retaining its cultural value. Hawaiian has already given us a famous holiday phrase: Mele kalikimaka, which means ‘Merry Christmas’ and was popularized in a song written by R. Alex Anderson and famously performed by the likes of Bing Crosby, Jimmy Buffett, and Bette Midler. Mele kalikimaka is just Merry Christmas pronounced in Hawaiian, which lacks r and s. (According to Roy Zimmerman’s song, “Christmas on Mars,” Merry Christmas in Martian ends up as Eenie Kaveenie Klibidavac, so Martian apparently has the same phonetic problem.) Mele Kalikimaki (the phrase, not the song) first appeared in print in 1904, well ahead of Hawaiian language revitalization, but Hau ‘oli makaluki hau! or ‘Happy New Year!’ is part of the invented language.
夏威夷语，和新希伯来语一样，是死而复生的语言。他们的重建都是基于原先的语言和文化，再加上现代的元素。夏威夷语中人尽皆知的节日用语为：Mele kalikimaka。意为圣诞快乐。此语的有名与R. Alex Anderson谱曲， Bing Crosby, Jimmy Buffett, Bette Midler演唱的一首歌不无关系。Mele kalikimaka只是Merry Christmas在夏威夷语中的音译。读成那个鬼样子是因为夏威夷语当中没有r和s的发音。在Roy Zimmerman的歌曲，‘火星的圣诞节’当中，‘Eenie Kaveenie Klibidavac’为火星语‘圣诞快乐’。很显然，火星人也不会发r和s的音。Mele Kalikimaki 这种说法首次书面的出现是在1904。这是在夏威夷语复生之前很久的事了。但oli makaluki hau! （新年快乐）是之后人造的夏威夷语。
However familiar or exotic we may seem to one another—Elves, Klingons, Wards, Esperantists, Hawaiians, Whos, Martians, and the rest of us—our languages are nonetheless included in the thesaurus of holiday goodwill. Happy Holidays!
The problem with Columbus Day isn't just Columbus himself (though celebrating him is dicey), or the Italian-Americans who enjoy celebrating one of their cultural heroes. The problem is that not everyone gets today off. You know just what I'm talking about, as you sit in your cubicle reading this because half of the people you need to talk to to get your job done have today off. Schools are out, the government is closed, but your office is open. That means you have to find a place to put the kids all day and listen to people talk about their long weekend plans while you have to work and hope it rains and ruins everyone's free day off. That's quite a legacy to leave, Columbus.
Do we really need a whole day to celebrate our flag? It's great that we have a symbol for our country, but why go out of our way to recognize it in some way? Every other country has a damn flag, it's not like having a flag makes us special. And just look at our flag. It's kind of a design nightmare. It's got all these bars and stripes and different colors and strange angles. As far as flags go, ours is a little cluttered. Maybe every year on Flag Day we should have a design competition to come up with something new? I'd support that.
This is such pandering. It's like Gillette and the American Tie Federation saw how much success Hallmark and 1-800-FLOWERS had with Mother's Day and decided to horn in on the action. Most dads could care less about getting presents or attention or brunch or anything. They probably appreciate that you call them, that's nice. Either that or your father was an asshole who treated you badly and divorced your mother for some new bitch with kids of her own and he doesn't even really talk to you that much anymore. What an asshole! Who needs to be reminded of that?
Who the hell even came up with this holiday, and what does it even mean? On February 2, there's this critter in Pennsylvania who comes out of his hole and either sees his shadow and get scared and something happens or he doesn't see his shadow and then nothing happens. No one understands it. Not even the news stations that cover it every year. There are more rules to this than Ultimate Frisbee. It's supposed to make spring come more quickly or something. It doesn't. It's February! We still have two more months of cold. How about giving us "Take a Trip to Florida" day? That's all I really want in February.
This is a day that is only celebrated in Massachusetts, our second least worst state, but it doesn't mean they need a whole day off just to themselves. The Patriots, they're good and all, but they're not all that. They haven't won a Super Bowl in six years! Look at Tom Brady these days. He's making more headlines for his hair and loving Uggs and being a prolific babydaddy than he is for making passes and touchdowns. Stop being so cocky, Boston, your team isn't that important.
A day for the planting and caring of trees? Really? What, have we been hijacked by Greenpeace? Do you have to hug the trees after you plant them? And what good are trees if they won't take care of themselves? You want trees to sit in your yard or on the street or wherever and just grow and be strong and not have to be tended to like some blooming invalid, right? What happens when the GOP finds out about this and tries to shut it down because it's some pro-environmental action? Won't they try to do the same thing to Arbor Day that they did to ACORN? Too many questions!
Talk Like a Pirate Day
Yes, mateys, this is stupid. And if you keep trying to make it happen, you're going to have to walk the plank.
Confederate Memorial Day
Ostensibly this is a day to commemorate all the lives lost by the Confederacy during the Civil War. While people dying in war is always sad, these people were defending, you know, slavery. So, um. Yeah. Remember that.
Casimir Pulaski Day
This is a holiday in March that is celebrated in the Chicago area, mostly by the large Polish population. That's fine, but Pulaski—a Revolutionary War hero—also has a federal holiday in October. I don't want to discount the great things this gentleman did to win our freedom, but does he really need two holidays? I mean, the only other person who gets two holidays is Jesus. Oprah doesn't even have one. Do something about that, Chicago.
Alright, Mardi Gras in New Orleans is fine. If you want to go and wade through streets paved in vomit and bad decisions and show off your body parts, be my guest. Actually, be New Orleans' guest. If you want to do it anywhere else, then you're just a drunk who is looking for an excuse to get shitfaced on a Tuesday. How about going to celebrate your first day of sobriety at a meeting instead? Then you'll have a nice, easy to remember anniversary to celebrate every year. If drinking a hurricane on Fat Tuesday means that much to you, then take your tourism dollars down to New Orleans. They'd be happy to take them.
The thankful great universe provides the environment of existence for us and give us sunlight, air, water and everything in keeping with we existence of space, bring storm to let us accept to toughen for us, bring to us mysterious let us look for.
The thankful parents give us the life, make us feel the merriment of the human life, feel the genuine feeling of the human life, feel the comity of the human life, feel happiness of the human life, also feel hardships and pain and sufferings of the human life!
The thankful teacher works with diligence and without fatigue everyday of teach, give us knowledge ability, put on the wing which flies toward the ideal for us.
They also only a small angel, the wing has not fullness. When Mieding disaster fell, the land covered by grief, they used a strong and smiling, shook us.
In more than 10 hours after the quake, one of the North-Manlianshixue boy was rescued from the rubble. In his armed police officers and soldiers prepared to move to safe areas, he can move difficult to hold the right hand, weakness and a standard King team at the Young Pioneers. Stretcher on the little boy he did not forget to rescue the officers and men of his uncle‘s move Thanksgiving salute to the countless people deeply touched.
敬老节-----OLD PEOPLE'S DAY
Maundy Thursday 濯足星期四(耶稣受难节)
Shrove Tuesday 忏悔节(四旬斋开始的前一天)
Ash Wednesday 复活节前的第七个星期三
Whitsun, Whitsuntide 圣神降临周(复活节后的第七周,尤指前三天)
Rogation Days 祈祷节(耶稣升天节的前三天)
Feast of the Sacred Heart 圣心节
Midsummer Day 施洗约翰节(6月24日)
Trinity Sunday, Trinity 圣三主日(复活节后的第八个星期日)
Good Friday 耶稣受难节
The Dragon Boat Festival, the 5th day of the 5th lunar month, has had a history of more than 2,000 years. It is usually in June in the Gregorian calendar.
After his death, the people of Chu crowded to the bank of the river to pay their respects to him. The fishermen sailed their boats up and down the river to look for his body. People threw into the water zongzi (pyramid-shaped glutinous rice dumplings wrapped in reed or bamboo leaves) and eggs to divert possible fish or shrimp from attacking his body. An old doctor poured a jug of reaglar wine (Chinese liquor seasoned with realgar) into the water, hoping to turn all aquatic beasts drunk. That's why people later followed the customs such as dragon boat racing, eating zongzi and drinking realgar wine on that day.
Over the years, the story of Qu’s demise transformed into the traditions of racing dragon boats and eating zongzi – a kind of rice wrapped in bamboo leaves. The races have certainly captured the imagination of people from all over the world. Every spring there are nearly 60 dragon boat races held outside of China in cities from Vancouver to Sydney, from Gdańsk, Poland to Cape Town, South Africa. Canada alone has nearly 50 dragon boat teams and Germany has nearly 30.
In early times, it was only glutinous rice dumplings wrapped in reed or other plant leaves and tied with colored thread, but now the fillings are more diversified, including jujube and bean paste, fresh meat, and ham and egg yolk. If time permits, people will soak glutinous rice, wash reed leaves and wrap up zongzi themselves. Otherwise, they will go to shops to buy whatever stuff they want. The custom of eating zongzi is now popular in North and South Korea, Japan and Southeast Asian nations.
“Dragon boat racing is an indispensable part of the festival, held all over the country. As the gun is fired, people will see racers in dragon-shaped canoes pulling the oars harmoniously and hurriedly, accompanied by rapid drums, speeding toward their destination.
On Dragon Boat Festival, parents also need to dress their children up with a perfume pouch. They first sew little bags with colorful silk cloth, then fill the bags with perfumes or herbal medicines, and finally string them with silk threads. The perfume pouch will be hung around the neck or tied to the front of a garment as an ornament. They are said to be able to ward off evil.
Before Jesus births, Joseph and Mary came to Quirnius was governing Syria. So all went to be registered, everyone to his own city. Joseph also went up out of Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and of the lineage of David, to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife, who was with child. So it was that while they were there, the days were completed for her to bedelivered. And she brought forth her firstborn Son, and wrapped him in swaddling cloths, and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn. And that, Christmas is the feast of the nativity of Jesus, is on 25th, December every year. But nobody know the actual birthday of Jesus. And the Christmas has become popular when Christmas cards appeared in 1846 and the concept of a jolly Santa Claus was first made popular in nineteenth Century.
On the twenty-fourth of December, all children are very excited. Usually they are sent to bed early so that their parents can get the presents ready. The younger children think that Father Christmas will come down the chimney or fireplace, so they hang up a sock for him to put presents in. The greedy ones even hang up a pillow-case or a sack to try to get more presents. Later that night, father or mother will put presents in the sock, and leave others at the side of the bed.
On Christmas morning, the children wake up very early. Some even turn on the light at two o’clock, and most of them are awake by six o’clock, and the young ones play while the dinner is prepared. At about one o’clock in the afternoon, the Christmas dinner is brought in. The turkey or chicken is quickly eaten. Children search in their Christmas pudding for new coins which are hidden in it. The rest of the day is full of games and eating until the happiest of all Christmas hollidays comes to an end.
To my dearest love on this joyous Christmas.
For this and many Christmas to come.
On this Christmas I have but one thing to say: I love you.
You’re the best Christmas present I ever received.
I only want you for Christmas!
I give all my love to you this Christmas.
Even though we are apart, you are in my heart this Christmas.
I want you stuffed in my stocking.
I want to be in your arms this Christmas.
My heart is my Christmas present to you.
You are the one for me this Christmas and for many Christmas to come.
I will be yours forever!
Let’s never spend our Christmas apart.
In 1582 France became the first country to switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. This meant that the beginning of the year was moved from the end of March to January 1. If someone failed to keep up with the change and continued to celebrate the New Year between March 25th and April 1st, various jokes would be played on him. This story might explain why April 1st specifically became the date of the modern holiday.
Instant Color TV 即时彩色电视
image1962: In 1962 there was only one tv channel in Sweden, and it broadcast in black and white. The station's technical expert, Kjell Stensson, appeared on the news to announce that, thanks to a new technology, viewers could convert their existing sets to display color reception. All they had to do was pull a nylon stocking over their tv screen. Stensson proceeded to demonstrate the process. Thousands of people were taken in. Regular color broadcasts only commenced in Sweden on April 1, 1970.
Psychological test: If you and the coward race, you want to: 1 you run fast; as fast; you coward slower than… answer: you than beasts also a beast; you are beasts; beast than you! Happy April Fool's Day!
Notice: AprilFool's Day approaching, on April 1 you receive text messages are bogus, meaning exactly opposite, please pay attention. Following is the first: You are handsome styles Yushulinfeng beauty of the blossoming devil build lover!
There are a lot of the traditional Easter celebration, Easter egg is a symbol of the most typical. In ancient times the eggs are often seen as more children and grandchildren and a symbol of resurrection, because it breeds new life. Later, Christians also gives new meaning to the egg that it is a symbol of the tomb of Jesus, the life of the future is born from it and get rid of.
Easter eggs are often dyed red to represent the crucifixion of Jesus when the blood flow, but also a symbol of happiness after the resurrection. There is an ancient custom, the egg is cooked to the street children play. Their eggs from rolling down the hillside: Who broke the last egg, will win, all property of all of his eggs. White House to play this game every year, but is rolling eggs on the lawn only.
You Name It Eggs
These personalized eggs are perfect place cards for Easter dinner.
What to do: Rest an egg sideways on an egg holder and dip in dye bath of desired color, but hold the egg so the top third of the egg stays above the dye bath and remains white. Let dry completely. Pour a small amount of acrylic craft paint in desired color on a plastic plate or wax paper. Dip the non-brush end of a small paintbrush into the paint and dab on egg to create a dot. Paint dots around the white oval. When the paint dries, apply letter stickers to spell a name or just one sticker for an initial.
To mother on Mother’s Day: Thank you for all of the wonderful things that you have done for me.
Mom, thank you for being you.
You are the one that we love the most. Have a happy Mother’s Day.
Take good care of yourself. We all love you, mom.
There are little things that I should have said and done to show my gratitude, but it is appreciated what you do.
have done for me：
thank you for being you：
在美国，最早关于母亲节的记载是1872年，由莱利亚（Julia Ward Howe及The Battle Hymn Of The Republic的作者）所提出的。莱利亚提议将这一天献给“和平”并在波士顿等地举行母亲节的集会。
Arbor Day is primarily an American holiday that encourages the planting and care of trees. Arbor Day occurs in the United States every year on the last Friday in April (April 28 in 2006), with the exception of Louisiana, which observes the holiday on the third Friday in January and Hawaii which observes the holiday on the first Friday in November. The customary observance is to plant a tree, but it is not a public holiday and is no longer widely observed in USA (except in Nebraska, where it is a public holiday); in other states, it has been displaced by the emphasis on Earth Day.
Similar holidays exist worldwide, some going by the same name, as in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, where it is spelled Arbour Day. In China, it also commemorates the passing of Dr Sun Yat-sen. The Japanese celebrate the similarly-themed Greenery Day.
Arbor Day was established by J Sterling Morton of Nebraska City, Nebraska in 1872. J Sterling Morton and his wife moved from Detroit, Michigan to the Nebraska Territory in 1854, where he was the editor of Nebraska's first newspaper. His influence as a journalist led to his involvement in politics, and he became a promoter of the settlement of Nebraska. The lack of trees, however, was an obstacle.